Engineering Institute of Technology


Unit Name


Unit Code



Unit Duration



Bachelor of Science (Engineering)


Duration 3 years

Year Level


Unit Creator/Reviewer






Credit Points



Total Program Credit Points 81 (27 x 3)

Mode of Delivery

Online or On-campus

Unit Workload

(Total student workload including “contact hours” = 10 hours per week)

Pre-recordings / Lecture – 1.5 hours Tutorial – 1.5 hours

Guided labs / Group work / Assessments – 2 hours

Personal Study recommended - 5 hours

The objective of this unit is to teach students on reinforced concrete (RC) structures, as part of building construction and design. Engineering materials, dead and live loads, wind loading, and design methodologies are also examined.

The structural design engineer makes decisions about the general arrangement of the structural members, the materials of which they are made, their size and how they are connected together. Structural designers make use of information about materials and construction processes together with various analytical techniques to assist them in making the correct decisions about how structures should be built. Students would already have covered how to analyse structures to determine aspects such as bending moments, deflections and stresses. This unit will concentrate on estimating the loads which a structure may be required to carry and designing individual members (including specific codes).”

The subject matter covered in this unit will include: the configuration and functional structural elements of various types of roofs, wall framings, and foundations, including load estimations applied on these RC structures as based on Australian loading codes; the behaviour and properties of conventional structural materials, primarily steel and concrete, as used in the development of design methods; properties of RC structures, particularly durability and fire resistance; the design and analysis of RC beams for flexure/bending and shear, and of other RC structures such as columns, slabs, and footings, based on AS 3600 (Australian Standard for Concrete Structures); detailing of RC members; and lastly, the ethical and legal obligations of a structural engineer.

At the conclusion of this unit, students will have been imparted with detailed knowledge of RC structures, particulary in terms of building design and construction, and the requirements and obligations of a structural engineer.


Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this Unit, students are expected to be able to:

  1. Outline and communicate to others the form and functional structural elements of various types of roof, wall framing, and foundations, and include load estimation applied on these RC members.

  2. Demonstrate a broad knowledge of the behaviour and properties of conventional structural materials (steel and concrete) used in the development of design methods.

  3. Demonstrate a broad knowledge of the durability and fire resistance of RC structures.

  4. Analyse and design a simple RC member for flexure/bending and shear, and other RC structures – such as a column, slab, or footing.

  5. Recognise and communicate the need for lawful adherence to good practice as part of the ethical and legal obligations of a structural engineer, particularly in relation to the detailing of RC members.

    Completing this unit may add to students professional development/competencies by:

    1. Fostering personal and professional skills and attributes in order to:

      1. Conduct work in a professionally diligent, accountable and ethical manner.

      2. Effectively use oral and written communication in personal and professional domains.

      3. Foster applicable creative thinking, critical thinking and problem solving skills.

      4. Develop initiative and engagement in lifelong learning and professional development.

      5. Enhance collaboration outcomes and performance in dynamic team roles.

      6. Effectively plan, organise, self-manage and manage others.

      7. Professionally utilise and manage information.

      8. Enhance technologist literacy and apply contextualised technologist skills.

    2. Enhance investigatory and research capabilities in order to:

      1. Develop an understanding of systematic, fundamental scientific, mathematic principles, numerical analysis techniques and statistics applicable to technologists.

      2. Access, evaluate and analyse information on technologist processes, procedures, investigations and the discernment of technologist knowledge development.

      3. Foster an in-depth understanding of specialist bodies of knowledge, computer science, engineering design practice and contextual factors applicable to technologists.

      4. Solve basic and open-ended engineering technologist problems.

      5. Understand the scope, principles, norms, accountabilities and bounds associated with sustainable engineering practice.

    3. Develop engineering application abilities in order to:

      1. Apply established engineering methods to broadly-defined technologist problem solving.

      2. Apply engineering technologist techniques, tool and resources.

      3. Apply systematic technologist synthesis and design processes.

      4. Systematically conduct and manage technologist projects, work assignments, testing and experimentation.

The Australian Engineering Stage 1 Competency Standards for Engineering Technologists, approved as of 2013. This table is referenced in the mapping of graduate attributes to learning outcomes and via the learning outcomes to student assessment.


Stage 1 Competencies and Elements of Competency


Knowledge and Skill Base


Systematic, theory based understanding of the underpinning natural and physical sciences and the engineering fundamentals applicable to the technology domain.


Conceptual understanding of the, mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics, and computer and information sciences which underpin the technology domain.


In-depth understanding of specialist bodies of knowledge within the technology domain.


Discernment of knowledge development within the technology domain.


Knowledge of engineering design practice and contextual factors impacting the technology domain.


Understanding of the scope, principles, norms, accountabilities and bounds of sustainable engineering practice in the technology domain.


Engineering Application Ability


Application of established engineering methods to broadly-defined problem solving within the technology domain.


Application of engineering techniques, tools and resources within the technology domain.


Application of systematic synthesis and design processes within the technology domain.


Application of systematic approaches to the conduct and management of projects within the technology domain.


Professional and Personal Attributes


Ethical conduct and professional accountability.


Effective oral and written communication in professional and lay domains.


Creative, innovative and pro-active demeanour.


Professional use and management of information.


Orderly management of self and professional conduct.


Effective team membership and team leadership.

Graduate Attributes

Successfully completing this Unit will contribute to the recognition of attainment of the following graduate attributes aligned to the AQF Level 7 criteria, Engineers Australia Stage 1 Competency Standards for Engineering Technologists and the Sydney Accord:


Graduate Attributes

(Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Professional and Personal Development)

EA Stage 1 Competencies

Learning Outcomes

A. Knowledge of Science and Engineering Fundamentals

A1. Breadth of knowledge of engineering and systematic, theory-based understanding of underlying principles, and depth of knowledge across one or more engineering sub- disciplines


1.1, 1.3


1, 2, 3, 4

A2. Knowledge of mathematical, statistical and computer sciences appropriate for engineering technology




1, 2, 3, 4

A3. Discernment of knowledge development within the technology domain


1, 2, 3, 4

A4. Knowledge of engineering design practice and contextual factors impacting the technology domain




2, 3, 4

B. Problem Solving, Critical Analysis and Judgement

B1. Ability to research, synthesise, evaluate and innovatively apply theoretical concepts, knowledge and approaches across diverse engineering technology contexts to effectively solve engineering problems


1.4, 2.1, 2.3


3, 4

B2. Technical and project management skills to design complex systems and solutions in line with developments in engineering technology professional practice


2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.2


3, 4

C. Effective Communication

C1. Cognitive and technical skills to investigate, analyse and organise information and ideas and to communicate those ideas clearly and fluently, in both written and spoken forms appropriate to the audience




1, 2, 3, 4, 5

C2. Ability to engage effectively and appropriately across a diverse range of cultures



D. Design and Project Management

D1. Apply systematic synthesis and design processes within the technology domain

2.1, 2.2, 2.3

3, 4

D2. Apply systematic approaches to the conduct and management of projects within the technology domain





E. Accountability, Professional and Ethical Conduct

E1. Innovation in applying engineering technology, having regard to ethics and impacts including economic; social; environmental and sustainability


1.6, 3.1, 3.4


1, 2, 5

E2. Professional conduct, understanding and accountability in professional practice across diverse circumstances including team work, leadership and independent work


3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6


1, 2, 5

Unit Competency and Learning Outcome Map

This table details the mapping of the unit graduate attributes to the unit learning outcomes and the Australian Engineering Stage 1 Competency Standards for the Engineering Technologist.




Graduate Attributes














Engineers Australia Stage 1 Competency Standards for Engineering Technologist

























































































































































































Unit Learning Outcomes
































Student assessment

Assessment Type

When assessed

Weighting (% of total unit marks)

Learning Outcomes Assessed


Assessment 1

Type: Multi-choice test / Group work / Short answer questions / Practical / Remote Lab / Simulation

Example Topic: Design Properties of Materials; bond and stress development.

Students may complete a quiz with MCQ type answers and solve some simple equations to demonstrate a good understanding of the fundamental concepts


Week 3






Assessment 2

Type: Multi-choice test / Group work / Short answer questions / Practical / Remote Lab / Simulation

Example Topic: Ultimate strength analysis, design for bending and deflection of RC beams and crack control. Ultimate strength design for shear.

Students may provide solutions to simple problems on the listed topics


Week 6




2, 3, 4


Assessment 3

Type: Multi-choice test / Group work / Short answer questions / Practical / Remote Lab / Simulation / Project

/ Report

Example Topic: Ultimate strength design for torsion; Analysis and design of RC slabs.

Students may complete a quiz with MCQ type answers or solve some simple problems or using software to complete a practical.


Week 9




3, 4


Assessment 4

Type: Examination Example Topic: All topics

An examination with a mix of detailed report type questions and/or simple numerical problems to be completed in 3 hours


Final Week




1 to 5


Attendance / Tutorial Participation

Example: Presentation, discussion, group work, exercises, self-assessment/reflection, case study analysis, application.



1 to 5

Prescribed and recommended readings


Required textbook(s)

  1. Loo, Y., C., Chowdhury, S., H. 2010, Reinforced & Prestressed Concrete: Analysis and Design with Emphasis on Application of AS3600-2009, Cambridge University Press.

    This is a standard textbook which has been written by Professor Loo and Dr Chowdhury who are generally recognized as foremost Australian academics in RC design. The text has been used in a number of universities such as Griffith University, and has undergone a second revision. The text has been designed to provide step-by-step instruction of problems, solved examples, and comments for civil engineering students.

  2. Australian Standard 2009, Concrete Structures

This Standard has been designed to cover the design of concrete structures (AS3600). Students will be required to follow text book contents of analysis and design of RC structures based on this standard.


Reference Materials

  1. Foster, S., J., Kilpatrick, A., E. and Warner, R., F. 2010, Reinforced Concrete Basics - Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures, 2nd Edition, Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Australia.


    Unit Content:

    One topic is delivered per contact week, with the exception of part-time 24-week units, where one topic is delivered every two weeks.


    Topic 1

    Introduction and Design Properties of Materials

    • General remarks on the design properties of materials

    • Design requirements

    • Loads and load combinations

    • Concrete cover and reinforcement spacing

    • Concrete

    • Steel

    • Steel Shaping and Detailing


      Topic 2

      Bond and Stress Development

    • Introduction

    • Design formulas for stress development

    • Splicing of reinforcement

    • Illustrative examples

      Topics 3 and 4

      Limit State (Ultimate Strength) Analysis and Design for Bending

    • Definitions

    • Ultimate strength theory

    • Ultimate strength of a singly-reinforced rectangular section

    • Design of singly-reinforced rectangular sections

    • Ultimate strength of doubly-reinforced rectangular sections

    • Design of doubly-reinforced rectangular sections

    • T-beams and other flanged sections

    • Non-standard sections


      Topic 5

      Deflection of RC Beams and Crack Control

    • Introduction

    • Short-term (immediate) deflection

    • Long-term deflection

    • Minimum effective depth

    • Crack control


      Topic 6

      Ultimate Strength Design for Shear

    • Transverse shear stresses and shear failure

    • Transverse shear design

    • Longitudinal shear


      Topic 7

      Ultimate Strength Design for Torsion

    • Introduction

    • Maximum torsion

    • Checks for reinforcement requirements

    • Design for torsional reinforcement

    • Design example


      Topics 8 and 9

      Analysis and Design of RC Slabs

    • Introduction

    • One-way slabs

    • Two-way slabs supported on four sides

    • Multi-span two-way slabs


      Topic 10

      Analysis and Design of RC Columns

    • Introduction

    • Centrally loaded column

    • Columns in uniaxial bending

    • Capacity reduction factor

    • Preliminarily design procedure

    • Moment magnifiers for slender columns

    • Biaxial bending effects


      Topic 11

      RC Footings Design

    • Introduction

    • Wall footings

    • Column footings


Topic 12

Unit Review

In the final week, students will have an opportunity to review the contents covered so far. Opportunity will be provided for a review of students’ work and to clarify any outstanding issues.

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